Frederick McKinley Jones (1982-1961) was the first man to invent a practical refrigeration system for trucks and railroad cars. He received the patent on July 12, 1940. A native of Cincinnati, Ohio, his formal education ended in the sixth grade, but by 1930 his self-teaching was so effective that he was manufacturing movie sound equipment. The development of the refrigerating device marked a new direction for his efforts, and its success revolutionized the transportation and marketing of fresh foods. In 1991, he was the first black to receive the National Medal of Technology (posthumously).
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